National Biomass Cookstoves Programme (NBCP)
In the context of concerns over health, climate change and energy security, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy through a Special Project on Cookstove(SPC) during 2009-10 initiated the process of consultations under its Core Group on cookstoves to ascertain the status of various types of biomass improved cookstoves being developed and promoted by various organizations, NGOs, entrepreneurs and industries in the country, and to identify ways and means for the development and expansion of the deployment of improved biomass cookstoves. The consultations indicated that biomass cookstoves do have the potential to directly address health concerns and welfare concerns of the weakest and most vulnerable sections of society. The cleaner combustion in these devices will also greatly reduce greenhouse pollutants.
2. National Biomass Cookstoves Initiatives (NBCI)
2.1 As a result of the above consultations, a National Biomass Cookstoves Initiative (NBCI) was launched by MNRE on 2nd December 2009 at New Delhi with the primary aim to enhance the use of biomass cookstoves. The initiative stressed the setting up of state-of-the-art testing, certification and monitoring facilities and strengthening R&D programmes. The aim was to design and develop the most efficient, cost effective, durable and easy to use device.
2.2 The NBCI of MNRE is structured differently from the earlier National Programme on Improved Chulhas (NPIC), although building on the several successes of that programme as also drawing lessons from the experience gained from its implementation. Under this initiative, a series of pilot scale projects are envisaged using several existing commercially – available and better cookstoves and different grades of process biomass fuel.
2.3 A project entitled “A New Initiative for Improved Cookstoves: Preparatory Activities for Launch” was taken up by MNRE at Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi during the year 2009-10 to assess the present status of various types of improved chulhas, their suitability and delivery mechanisms. The IIT was to prepare an action plan for development and deployment of cookstoves. The project had been completed and its recommendations are being acted upon.
3 Technology & Models of Biomass Cookstoves
3.1 Biomass cookstove is basically a combustion device which burns biomass fuel more efficiently with reduced emissions and offers cleaner cooking energy solutions. Biomass Cookstoves are of two types; fixed type and portable type. The portable cookstoves are also of two types; natural draft and forced draft. Advanced cookstoves utilizing fans are more efficient cookstoves compared to natural draft ones. Each type of cookstove can be used for domestic as well as community cooking applications. The improved cook-stoves may be made with metal, ceramic and terracotta/ pottery (durable type) and combination thereof. With this, the stoves will be categorized as metallic (MS, SS, cast iron and combination thereof), metal clad ceramic/ pottery and ceramic types.
4. Biomass Cookstove Test Centres
4.1 The Ministry received requests from a few industries for granting excise duty exemption on the cookstoves models manufactured by them, as per the General Exemption No.21 under J Solar and other Natural Energy, Chulha and Nuclear Fuel contained in Union Budget (Notification no.62/91-CE, dated 25th July, 1991). In order to maintain quality of the cookstoves, these models were to be tested for their performance as per stipulated test procedure to conform required performance. Three Biomass Cookstove Test Centres have been funded by MNRE to cater the requirements of performance testing of biomass cookstove industries for different zone in the country. The Test Centres have test facilities with advanced equipment as par with international level. The following are the complete addresses of the Test Centres:-
1. Prof. Rajendra Prasad,
Centre for Rural Development and Technology,
Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas,
2. Shri S. Behera, Principal Scientist,
Design & Rural Technology Department,
Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology(IMMT),
3. Prof. Anil K Kurchania,
Department of Renewable Energy Sources,
College of Technology and Engineering,
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313001. Phone: 0294-2471068 (O).
5 Modified Standards and Test Protocols
5.1 The Ministry in consultation with the Principal Investigators of the Test Centers including experts from the CGPL, IISc Bangalore perused the BIS on solid biomass cookstoves – portable that was brought out by BIS in 1991 to examine the applicability of the standard and test protocols in view of the newer designs of cookstoves that came to market in recent years. After extensive discussions and examinations, a draft revised standard and test protocols was prepared for the portable natural draft and forced draft types improved domestic and community biomass cookstoves and the same was forwarded to BIS in November 2011 for further action. The draft revised standard was circulated by BIS in June 2012 for comments.
5.2 Accordingly, the test facilities have been strengthened with advanced equipments and testing methodologies for carrying out performance testing of coosktoves. All relevant R&D/academic institutions in the country and a few leading organizations in the subject in US were contacted to know the methods being followed for emissions and particulate measurements from combustion of biomass. These include National Environmental Engineering Research Institute(CSIR), Nagpur, Shri Ram Institute of Industrial Research, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Petroleum(IIP-CSIR), Dehradun, Central Building Research Institute(CBRI-CSIR), Roorkee, Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB), New Delhi, US Environmental Protection Agency Labs, USA and LBNL, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
5.3 US EPA(5G) method for wood heaters have been followed for designing and developing test facilities at three Test Centres supported by MNRE in R&D Project mode. Considerable efforts have been made to set up test facilities with uniform equipment and instrumentation, and to evolve suitable operating parameters for operating test facilities for carrying out performance testing of cookstoves with accuracy. Extensive tests were conducted at MNRE supported test centres at IIT Delhi, IMMT-CSIR, Bhubaneswar and MPUAT, Udaipur to streamline the process of performance testing particularly testing methodologies for emissions and particulate measurements Keeping in view the international practice for measuring the emissions and particulates emanating from the combustion of biomass and responsible for health hazards, the draft standard has been modified by replacing the performance parameters CO/CO2 ratio and TSP by CO (g/MJd) and TPM(mg/MJd), respectively. The emissions are determined in terms of Mega Jules energy delivered to pot. The limit of moisture content has been suggested as 5(±1)%. Further, the standard performance parameters of thermal efficiency, CO and TPM have been evolved on the basis of performance testing results obtained on the various cookstove models developed by Indian industry and traditional chulha tested at Test Centres. The modified draft revised standard has been submitted to BIS for further action.
5.4 It has been decided to follow the modified draft standard and test protocols for carrying out performance testing of cokstoves. The cookstoves satisfying the stipulated performance parameters will be considered for approval by MNRE. The standard performance parameters suggested in the modified draft revised standard are given below:-
|Sl. No.||Type of Biomass Cookstove||Standard Performance Parameters|
|Thermal Efficiency (%)||CO(g/MJd)||PM(mg/MJd)|
|1||Natural Draft Type||Not less than 25||≤ 5||≤ 350|
|2.||Forced Draft Type||Not less than 35||≤ 5||≤ 150|
6. Process of Cookstove Testing
6.1 The industries/manufacturers who may want to get their products tested may send the complete technical details of the cookstoves including the kind of biomass the cookstove can burn and the procedure for feeding the fuel to cookstove to MNRE. The Ministry in turn will direct the industry to send their product with details including testing charges to the respective test centres for performance testing. The cookstove models should have the industry’s logo fixed on the outer surface of the cookstove with serial no. marked thereon. The cookstoves are being tested for three performance parameters as stipulated in modified draft standard, namely, thermal efficiency, CO and Total Particulate Matter (TPM) as given above, apart from other basic design parameters. The cookstoves qualifying the stipulated tests as per the modified draft standard are granted Excise Duty Exemption. The test centre will complete the performance testing within two week time and will send the performance testing report to MNRE for consideration. The test reports of cookstoves qualifying the stipulated performance Tests are placed before the Technical Evaluation Committee of MNRE for examination of test results for consideration of approval. The industries whose cookstoves do not qualify are informed of the results with a suggestion to make appropriate improvement in cookstove designs.
7 Approved Models of Cook-stoves
7.1 Natural draft and forced draft models of single part metallic and metal plate ceramic (ceramic composite/ industrial insulating materials) cook-stoves have been developed and are being manufactured in the country. Some of the models have been approved by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy on the basis of their performance testing conducted by Improved Cook-stove Test Centres and satisfying stipulated performance parameters. The approved cookstove models supplied by respective manufacturers are given below:
|Sl.No.||Address of manufacturers||Models||Power Output|
|I. Natural Draft Cookstoves|
|1||M/S UNICUS ENGINEERING PRIVATE LIMITED
Regd. office ; 23, madhusudan Nagar
Unit - IV, Bhubaneswar, Pin :- 751001
Factory Office : 178/5535, Chakeisihani, Mancheswar, Bhubaneswar, PIN :- 751010
(M) 09439556490, 09861794100
|Harsha -Domestic(CSIR,IMMT Design)||1.83kW|
|2||Shri Vikram S. Kale,
Proprietor, Vikram Stoves & Fabricators,
P O Box No.25
Telefax : 02472 228401
|3||Ms. Neha Juneja
Co-founder, Greenway Grameen Infra Pvt Ltd, 301, Chawla Complex, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400614
|Greenway Smart Cook Stove||0.8 kW|
|4||M/s Ravi Engineering & Chemical Works
Sector -24, Pocket-28, Plot No.55,
3rd Floor, Rohini, New Delhi-110085.
Tel:011-27932786, (M) 9911773887
(For light cooking – 2-3 persons)
|5||Adarsh Plant Protect Ltd,
604, GIDC, Vitthal Udyognar, Anand,
Mr Sreekanth, Director
|Adarsh (Nirmal) - Domestic size)||0.89 kW|
|II. Forced Draft Cookstoves
|6||Shri Mahesh Yagnaraman,
Managing Director, First Energy Pvt. Ltd., B 101, Signet Corner Building, Baner Road, Baner,
Pune – 411045(Fax:020-67210444).
|Oorja Model – Domestic Size||0.7 kW|
|7||The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), 6C, Darbari Seth Block
India Habitat Place, Lodhi Road
New Delhi - 110 003
Tel: 011-24682111 / 24682100
Fax: 011-24682144 / 24682145
Phoenix Udyog Pvt Ltd
|TERI SPT-0610 Stove
|8||Shri Ashwin Patel
Alpha Renewable Energy Pvt. Ltd.
At. & Po. Vasna (Borsad), Ta. Borsad, Dist. Anand
Gujarat, India-388 540
|Eco-chulha (XXL Model) –Domestic Size
Eco-chulha (XXXL Model)
|9||M/S Navdurga Metal Industries (Bharat), registered office 8/8/158, Sagar Building,
Fatehganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh. Works: D-33 Mumtaz Nagar, UPSIDC Site -2, Industrial, Area, Faizabad-224001.
|Agni Star- Domestic Size||2.16 kW|
|10||Shri Sashidhara B T, Proprietor
Sacks Right Energy Innovations
No.83/84, Kempegowda Circle
14th A Cross, Thigalarapalya Main Road, Peenya 2 nd Stage
Bangalore -560 058
(M): 9900241276, 9620598646, 9886425879
|Ojas -Domestic Size||1.99 kW|
|11||Shri Rajiv Dandekar
Ram Tara Engineering Company
PT Compound, Mondha Naka Signal, Jalna Road
E mail: rajiv[at]ramtara[dot]com
(M): 9923911889, 9823162626
|RAMTARA Biomass Cookstove (Portable-Forced draft)||1.0 kW|
8. Pilot Scale Demonstration Projects
8.1 The NBCI was launched recognizing that cookstoves technology has improved considerably in the past few years and those efforts need to be continued to further improve the designs to make them efficient and cost effective. The ultimate aim should be to achieve quality of energy services from cookstoves comparable to that from other clean energy sources such as LPG. In keeping with commitments of the NBCI, the Ministry proposed to take up pilot scale projects to demonstrate the use and study the impact of improved biomass cookstoves on social and economic development of the energy deficient people and its market potential in near future.
8.2 The objectives of pilot scale demonstration projects are as follows:-
- To demonstrate the use of improved biomass cookstoves for providing cleaner cooking energy solutions and to study its impact on social and economic development, fuel saving, emissions resulting from burning biomass for cooking including indoor air quality where cooking is done, and mitigating drudgery and addressing health related concerns of women and children using traditional chulha for cooking.
- To demonstrate the impact of using biomass improved cookstoves on mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon and other emissions resulting from burning biomass for cooking.
- To gather field performance data for preparing a strategy plan for expansion of deployment of biomass cookstoves, including exploring CDM benefits to improve the affordability of biomass cookstoves.
8.3 A project “Pilot Field Testing and Evaluation of Community Sized Biomass Cookstoves” was taken up in the year 2010-11 for demonstration of community cookstoves for community applications in mid-day meal schemes in government schools in eight identified states in the country. The project had been completed. The field performance data indicated fuel saving of around 20-45%, emission reduction about 45-86% and saving cooking time about 17-43%.
8.4 A pilot scale project for deployment of 5500 nos. biomass community cookstoves in Anganwadis, Mid-day meal schemes in schools, Tribal Hostels, Dhabas/Restaurants and other commercial establishments is under consideration under the GOI’s Clean Energy Fund. Only cookstoves tested at MNRE Biomass Test Centres and performance found satisfactory as per BIS will be considered for deployment.
Family Sized/Portable Biomass Cookstoves
8.5 A pilot scale project to demonstrate 15,000 family sized/portable cookstove was taken up during 2011-12, 9000 of these have been deployed. The projects are being implemented by three implementing agencies in different states. The financial assistance for the project has been restricted upto 50% of the cost of biomass cookstoves with maximum support of Rs.300/- for natural draft cookstove and Rs.700/-for forced draft type cookstove. In addition, 15% of the support on each cookstove is provided as technical assistance and overhead charges to implementing agencies. The pilot scale project is being implemented through experienced NGOs, Self Help Group, manufacturers or entrepreneurs having sufficient experience at grassroots level for implementation of renewable energy projects. Only models tested successfully in Test Centres with stipulated performance have been selected for the demonstration under the project.
8.6 The overall monitoring and evaluation of the demonstration project is reviewed by the Core Group on Biomass Cookstove. The field performance monitoring will be carried out with the help of a third party monitoring system. The field performance monitoring will include the performance evaluation, the O&M service available, the response of users, biomass fuel available and emissions measurement in cooking space where cookstove is used for cooking to ascertain indoor air quality, to make an overall assessment of impact of use of cookstoves on fuel consumption and indoor air quality. The feedback of the projects will be used for developing strategy for expansion of development and deployment of biomass cookstoves during the 12th Five Year Plan and in future.
9 Carbon Finance on Biomass Cookstoves
9.1 The cookstoves market is still at the nascent stage and manufacturers have had limited ability to realize economies of scale to lower prices to consumers. While subsidies could be an option to increase affordability for the most disadvantaged, offering similar pricing structures to the market at large may be unrealistic. Against this background, it was recognized that carbon finance may offer an additional alternative for reducing the price and increasing the affordability of improved biomass cookstoves for low-income households. Switching to biomass cookstoves can displace greenhouse gas emissions related to fuel use. To the extent that accepted protocols have been put in place and verify avoided emissions, these can be sold as carbon offsets on the voluntary and CDM markets. The hope is that revenues from the sale of such offsets will allow cookstoves suppliers to market these devices at a lower price, thereby expanding sales. Encouragingly, offsets generated from cook stove projects are reportedly among the most sought after among voluntary offset purchasers. With these considerations, the Ministry in collaboration with GIZ, German has developed a Programme of Activities (PoA) for CDM in biomass cookstoves and same submitted to UNFCCC for registeration on 31st of December, 2012.
10. Review Mechanism
10.1 The progress of the coosktove development activities are reviewed periodically for achievements and for identifying ways and means for faster development and deployment of efficient and cost effective improved cookstoves. The following committees have been set for the purpose:-
- A Steering Committee under the chairmanship of Shri B.K. Chaturvedi, Member (Energy), Planning Commission to provide an oversight for the implementation of the National Biomass Cookstove Initiative(NBCI).
- A Core Group on Biomass Cooksove under the chairmanship of Shri Alok Srivastava, Joint Secretary (R&D Coord. & Cookstoves), MNRE.
11 Bioenergy Corporation of India Section 25 Company-
11.1 Planning Commission has approved in principle the setting up of a Section 25 Company primarily for promoting cookstoves in the country. The MNRE is in the process of setting up the “Bioenergy Corporation of India” for promoting bio energy technologies such as cookstoves, gasifiers, waste to energy and biogas plants.
12 National Biomass Cookstove Programme (NBCP) – Programme for 2012-13
12.1 A National Biomass Cookstove Programme(NBCP) has been proposed for the 12 the Plan with strategy to expand development and deployment of cookstoves in the country. The programme is under review for consideration. As start-up, the following work plan and strategy is proposed to be followed during the year 2012-13:-
i. To provide financial support for R&D for developing efficient and cost effective cookstoves and process technology for biomass fuel in partnership between R&D institutions and industries.
ii. Standards and test protocols and performance testing of biomass cookstoves.
iii. To take up pilot scale demonstration projects for demonstration of 1,10,000 (Nos.) of family /domestic and 10,000 community size portable biomass cookstoves to study the impact of a large scale deployment through field performance evaluation. The financial assistance from MNRE will be limited to 50% of the cost of cookstoves with ceiling of Rs.400 per cookstove for natural draft type and Rs.800/- for forced draft type portable domestic cookstoves. Similarly, in the case of larger size of cookstoves, the support will be limited to 50% of the cost of cookstoves with ceiling of Rs.2500/- per cookstove for natural draft type and Rs.5000/- for forced draft type portable community cookstoves. In addition, technical assistance for conducting training and for meeting administrative charges, approximately 25% of the support on each stove will also be provided to implementing agencies. No support will be provided to projects for demonstration in restaurants, dhabhas or any other commercial establishments. However, technical assistance will be provided to such outlets. The proposals will be invited through Expression of Interest (EoI) to be advertised through MNRE’s website. The pilot scale projects will be implemented through State Nodal Agencies, experienced NGOs, Self Help Groups already involved in development projects at grass-root level and in association with participating industries. Only models tested successfully in Test Centres qualifying the stipulated performance parameters will be considered for demonstration /deployment.
iv. Third party monitoring system will be adopted for field performance evaluation of the projects.
v. Publicity for dissemination of information and developing marketing strategy for cookstoves and biomass fuel.